- The Grandfather of Philosophical systems: Hegel.
- Hegel's thesis: everything but the Whole is obviously fragmentary,
and incapable of existing without the complement supplied by the rest of the world
- Assumes the incomplete must be not self-subsistent, but must need the support of other things before it can exist.
- But, The fact that a thing has relations does not prove that its relations are logically necessary.
- We cannot prove that the universe as a whole forms a single harmonious system such as Hegel believes that it forms.
- The attempt to determine the universe by means of a priori principles has broken down;
- The whole tendency of modern thought, is in showing that supposed contradictions were illusory,
and that very little can be proved a priori from considerations of what must be.
- The essential difference of philosophy from science, is critical examination of
the principles employed in science and in daily life; searching for inconsistencies,
and only accepts what, has not reason for rejecting upon critical examination.
- The aim of criticism is considering each piece of apparent knowledge on its merits, and
retaining whatever still appears to be knowledge when done.
- Philosophy may claim justly that it diminishes the risk of error, and sometimes, renders it negligible. Not much more.